Orientation To Paraphrasing In Research Paper L

10 tips to achieve a 1st class degree

At the turn of the century in England E. Howard acted with idea of creation of garden cities which have to replace the existing cities burdened with shortcomings. This idea had noticeable impact on thinking of town-planners, but it could not be realized.

What is the true city? What its appointment? Let's give some definitions of the "formulas" emphasizing a city role in social development, its special situation among creations of mind and hands human.

Numerous projects of reconstruction of the capitals and other large cities in developing countries do not bring notable results. In a row from them the satellite towns and also some close located cities are considered by schedulers as "counterbalances" to the hypertrophied growth of the largest cities, as the instrument of their "unloading" and mitigation in them the menacing condition of surrounding environment.

Thus, comes to an end on a high urbanistic note in all developed countries XX century. As for an urbanization of developing countries, there unreasonably high level of territorial concentration of the population and economy in the large cities continues to increase though all imaginable and inconceivable "records" are already broken.

Spatiality of an urbanization is expressed and in its close connection with territorial concentration of activity. Sociologists define an urbanization as world-wide and historical development, concentration, intensifications of communication, integration of more and more various forms of practical activity. This quite broad definition "dissolving" an urbanization in the general development of a civilization. But it, in principle, correctly focuses attention on the main thing - on concentration of diverse activity that is an urbanization basis. In the course of deepening of public division of labor there is the increasing splitting of activity which diverse types then gather in points, most for them convenient. Thus, the cities, agglomerations, megalopolises represent a special form of territorial concentration - urbanistic. It can be defined as concentration of a variety.

Formation of a basic framework of moving. The dispersed concentration. The basic framework represents a generalized urbanistic portrait of the country or region. It is formed by set nodal (the cities, agglomerations) and linear (highways, polyhighways) elements. Where they are pulled rather together and the territory is blocked by zones of their direct influence, the urbanized areas are formed.

Backwardness and poverty cannot create a sustainable development. The famous specialist in problems of the cities of developing countries Alan Dzhilbert notes existence in them "crisis poverty". On medium-term and, especially, on a long-term outlook there is basis to predict an aggravation of an ecological situation in the cities developing countries and increase of their "contribution" to global pollution.

In the social relation city agglomeration - an area in which the week cycle of activity of the modern citizen becomes isolated. At agglomerations two fundamental properties: a sblizhennost of the settlements forming them and complementarity (complementarity) of the last. The considerable economic effect caused by opportunity to close considerable part of production and other communications within territorially limited agglomerative areas is connected with agglomerations. It is especially important for the countries with the big territory. In the conditions of the centralized management of economy the agglomerative effect was used insufficiently: departments preferred to organize communications in the framework, without paying attention to their economic inexpediency.